Setting up MySQL on Docker is fairly simple, and the MySQL team has done a credible job creating a flexible Docker image that can be used in many circumstances. Once the MySQL container is set up, you need a method to verify it can be accessed from other containers, and to manage the database it contains. Enter the mysql-client and phpMyAdmin Docker images. Both are easy to set up, and easy to use. Typically when deployed as part of an application stack, the MySQL container won't be visible to the public Internet but does need to be visible to other containers in your deployed application. Hence, there must be a private bridge network the containers use to communicate with each other, and the only ports published are what's required to supply the service to the public.
Unlike the MAMP product, what's shown here is equally applicable to macOS and Windows laptops.